Three main medical problems affect the prostate.
- Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
- Prostate Cancer
These diseases can have similar symptoms.
Yet these are three different conditions : prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia are not prostate cancer and do not increase the risk of developing prostate cancer.
Prostatitis is an inflammation or infection of the prostate of bacterial origin or not.
It can affect many men, regardless of their age: 50 % of men have some form of prostatitis during their lifetime (INCA, www.e-cancer.fr). It is not contagious and cannot be transmitted during sexual intercourse.
Patients with chronic prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome are more likely than the general population prone to sexual dysfunction. More than half of them suffer from abnormal ejaculation (premature ejaculation, painful ejaculation) and more than a third of erectile dysfunction. (AFU, 2008)
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a disease which is manifested by an increase in size of the prostate due to increased growth of cells, most of which are located in the transition zone of the prostate.
Adenoma of the prostate compresses the urethra and can cause some discomfort and difficulty urinating.
With age, the prostate naturally becomes larger: almost all men over 70 have prostate adenoma. (INCA, www.e-cancer.fr )
Prostate cancer is the development of cancerous cells in the prostate.
In about 95% of cases, it is an adenocarcinoma, a cancer glandular (INCA, www.e-cancer.fr ). There are other forms of rare prostate cancers.
The prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in France and in the West in general, before lung cancer and colon - rectum. It is also the third leading cause of cancer death in men (excluding malignant hematology and "other cancers ") (INCA, 2014).
In the United States and in some countries of the European Union, the risk for a man to have prostate cancer diagnosed during his life is increasing while that of dying from cancer is decreasing.
The risk factors for prostate cancer are:
- Age: This cancer is more common in men over 65 years
- Ethnicity: This cancer is more common among African-American men compared to white men
- Family history: there is an increased risk of prostate cancer among brothers and sons of men diagnosed with prostate cancer.
- Diet: The diet can be one of the risk factors for prostate cancer. These are the findings of studies on Asian immigrants: in one generation, it was found among these men three times more diagnoses of prostate cancer. This increase in the frequency of prostate cancer was mainly attributed to changes in the diet following their immigration to North America. In addition, several other studies on the association between diet and the risk of prostate cancer have shown that a high fat diet may increase the risk of prostate cancer.
On the other hand, a daily consumption of vegetables, among which the Cruciferae family (broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts) has showed to bring some beneficial impacts.
AFU, 2008, 4ème journée de la prostate, 15 septembre 2008, dossier de presse. www.urofrance.org/fileadmin/medias/journee-prostate/2008/dossier-presse.pdf
INCa, www.e-cancer.fr, dossier Cancer de la prostate
PROCURE, « Halte au cancer de la prostate »,www.procure.ca/nutrition